Thoracic diseases of all kinds (viz. of lungs and pleura, esophagus, mediastinum, chest wall) are among the major health problems afflicting humankind. Tobacco smoking is an ever-increasing epidemic and public health problem. In Nepal, lung cancer is one the number-one killer of males and females alike. Esophageal Cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers with an ever-increasing incidence, and is the seventh most common cancer killer in the world.
Resection rates of lung cancer are low in general and especially in countries like Nepal. Advanced stage at presentation and poor general condition of the patient are the usual causes.
Thoracotomy is considered to be the most painful surgical access, the main culprit being intercostal nerve injury.